2015 HVAC Requirements for Residential including Custom Build Home Applications
New certified model applications and applications for custom homes submitted after January 1, 2015 shall include, but not be limited to the following information:
For ASHRAE method of calculation the following will be included :
For CSA-F280-12 method of calculation be used, the following will be included
Ontario Building Code - Residential HVAC Requirements:
We are dedicated to provide the best possible service and HVAC design to our clients. Our fee for Heat loss / Heat Gain Calculations, Heating & Cooling System Design, Ventilation Calculations & Ventilation Design, Air Distribution Calculations & Duct Design and Energy Efficiency Design Summary stamped by a licenced professional mechanical engineer for a typical construction of new residential home including custom build homes in Toronto (City of Toronto), Hamilton (City of Hamilton), Oshawa (City of Oshawa), Pickering (City of Pickering), Clarington (Municipality of Clarington), Ajax (Town of Ajax), Whitby (Town of Whitby), Brock (Township of Brock), Scugog (Township of Scugog), Uxbridge (Township of Uxbridge), Burlington (City of Burlington), Halton Hills (Town of Halton Hills), Milton (Town of Milton), Oakville (Town of Oakville), Brampton (City of Brampton), Mississauga (City of Mississauga), Caledon (Town of Caledon), Vaughan (City of Vaughan), Aurora (Town of Aurora), East Gwillimbury (Town of East Gwillimbury), Georgina (Town of Georgina), Markham (City of Markham), Newmarket (Town of Newmarket), Richmond Hill (Town of Richmond Hill), Whitchurch - Stouffville (Town of Whitchurch-Stouffville), King (Township of King) is $795+HST and could be completed in 10 business days. A 35 % RUSH premium would apply if required within 5 business days.
Fire Sprinkler System
Fire sprinklers respond to a fire while it is still small, sprinklers control the spread of deadly heat, flames and toxic smoke. Fire sprinkler application and installation guidelines, and overall fire sprinkler system design guidelines, are provided by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 13, (NFPA) 13D, and (NFPA) 13R. Fire sprinklers can be automatic or open orifice. Automatic fire sprinklers operate at a predetermined temperature, utilizing a fusible element, a portion of which melts, or a frangible glass bulb containing liquid which breaks, allowing the plug in the orifice to be pushed out of the orifice by the water pressure in the fire sprinkler piping, resulting in water flow from the orifice. The water stream impacts a deflector, which produces a specific spray pattern designed in support of the goals of the fire sprinkler type (i.e., control or suppression). Modern fire sprinkler heads are designed to direct spray downwards. Spray nozzles are available to provide spray in various directions and patterns. The majority of automatic fire sprinklers operate individually in a fire.
Open orifice fire sprinklers are only used in water spray systems or deluge sprinklers systems. They are identical to the automatic fire sprinkler on which they are based, with the heat sensitive operating element removed. Automatic fire sprinklers utilizing frangible bulbs follow a standardized color-coding convention indicating their operating temperature. Activation temperatures correspond to the type of hazard against which the fire sprinkler system protects. Residential occupancies are provided with a special type of fast response fire sprinkler with the unique goal of life safety.
Each closed-head fire sprinkler is held closed by either a heat-sensitive glass bulb or a two-part metal link held together with fusible alloy such as Wood's metal and other alloys with similar compositions. The glass bulb or link applies pressure to a pipe cap which acts as a plug which prevents water from flowing until the ambient temperature around the fire sprinkler reaches the design activation temperature of the individual fire sprinkler. Because each fire sprinkler activates independently when the predetermined heat level is reached, the number of fire sprinklers that operate is limited to only those near the fire, thereby maximizing the available water pressure over the point of fire origin.
The bulb breaks as a result of the thermal expansion of the liquid inside the bulb. The response time is expressed as a response time index (RTI), which typically has values between 35 and 250 m½s½, where a low value indicates a fast response. Under standard testing procedures (135 °C air at a velocity of 2.5 m/s), a 68 °C sprinkler bulb will break within 7 to 33 seconds, depending on the RTI. The RTI can also be specified in imperial units, where 1 ft½s½ is equivalent to 0.55 m½s½. The sensitivity of a fire sprinkler can be negatively affected if the thermal element has been painted.
There are several types of fire sprinklers:
The NFPA #13 standard was revised in 1996 to require Quick Response Fire Sprinklers in all buildings with light hazard occupancy classification. The NFPA #13 standard, section 3.6.1 defines quick response fire sprinklers as having a response time index (RTI) of 50 (meters-seconds)1/2 or less. The term quick response refers to the listing of the entire fire sprinkler (including spacing, density and location) not just the fast responding releasing element. Many standard response fire sprinklers, such as extended coverage ordinary hazard (ECOH) fire sprinklers, have fast responding (low thermal mass elements) in order to pass their fire tests. Quick response fire sprinklers are available with standard spray deflectors, but they are also available with extended coverage deflectors.
ESFR (early suppression fast response) refers to both a concept and a type of fire sprinkler. The concept is that fast response of fire sprinklers can produce an advantage in a fire if the response is accompanied by an effective discharge density — that is, a fire sprinkler spray capable of fighting its way down through the fire plume in sufficient quantities to suppress the burning fuel package. The fire sprinkler that was developed for this concept was created for use in high rack storage. ESFR fire sprinkler heads were developed in the 1980s to take advantage of the latest fast-response fire sprinkler technology to provide fire suppression of specific high-challenge fire hazards. Prior to the introduction of these fire sprinklers, fire protection systems were designed to control fires until the arrival of the fire department.
We provide hydraulic calculations for fire sprinklers and fire sprinkler design including seismic bracing, specifications for fire sprinkler systems, and engineering drawings and reports and shop drawings for fire sprinklers and fire protection. Each fire sprinkler system must be hydraulically calculated to ensure that the fire sprinklers will operate properly in case of a fire. Where a potable water supply serves a fire protection system, the fire protection system shall be isolated from the municipal potable water supply in accordance to the Ontario Building Code and in accordance with the applicable NFPA standard so as to prohibit any contamination of the municipal water supply.
Fire Safety Plan
The Ontario Fire Code requires a Fire Safety Plan for many properties or businesses including rental apartment buildings and restaurants. A fire safety plan is required in buildings containing a:
The requirements for a fire safety plan also apply to buildings or premises:
The requirements for a fire safety plan also apply to recreational camps regulated under the Health Protection and Promotion Act. Fire Safety Plans that are not customized to be site specific will not be approved.
Fire Safety Plan has to be acceptable to the Chief Fire Official. A Fire Safety Plan helps to ensure effective utilization of fire safety systems, equipment and procedures in a building to protect people from fire. A Fire Safety Plan is required to be reviewed regularly and any changes submitted to the municipal Fire Department. We prepare Fire Safety Plan to suit the specific resources of each individual building or complex. Typical fire safety plan which includes owners responsibilities, building audit, building resources, emergency contacts, what to do in case of fire, alternative compliance, fire drills, evacuation for endangered occupants and Fire Code requirements in regard to building fire safety equipment.
The Ontario Fire Code, Division B, Section 2.8, requires the establishment and implementation of a Fire Safety Plan for every building containing a Group A or B occupancy, and to every building required by the Building Code to have a fire alarm system. Any restaurant with more that 30 seats is classified as Assembly Occupancy and should have a Fire Safety Plan as per the Ontario Fire Code. The implementation of the Fire Safety Plan helps to ensure effective utilization of life safety features in a building to protect people from fire. We design Fire Safety Plan to suit the resources of each individual building or complex of buildings. Fire Safety Plans are intended to assist the owners of all buildings with the basic essentials for the safety of the occupants, to ensure an orderly evacuation at the time of an emergency and to provide a minimum degree of flexibility to achieve the necessary fire safety for the building. The Fire Safety Plan is required to be acceptable to the Chief Fire Official. It is the responsibility of the owner to ensure that the information contained within the Fire Safety Plan is accurate and complete.. The Fire Safety Plan is to be kept readily available at all times for use by staff and fire officials in the event of an emergency. A Fire Safety Plan is required to be reviewed regularly and any changes submitted to the municipal Fire Department. Typical fire safety plan which includes owners responsibilities, building audit, building resources, emergency contacts, what to do in case of fire, alternative compliance, fire drills, evacuation for endangered occupants and Fire Code requirements in regard to building fire safety equipment.
Typical Fire Safety Plan for a low-rise walk-up rental apartment building or a restaurant in Toronto (City of Toronto), Hamilton (City of Hamilton), Oshawa (City of Oshawa), Pickering (City of Pickering), Clarington (Municipality of Clarington), Ajax (Town of Ajax), Whitby (Town of Whitby), Brock (Township of Brock), Scugog (Township of Scugog), Uxbridge (Township of Uxbridge), Burlington (City of Burlington), Halton Hills (Town of Halton Hills), Milton (Town of Milton), Oakville (Town of Oakville), Brampton (City of Brampton), Mississauga (City of Mississauga), Caledon (Town of Caledon), Vaughan (City of Vaughan), Aurora (Town of Aurora), East Gwillimbury (Town of East Gwillimbury), Georgina (Town of Georgina), Markham (City of Markham), Newmarket (Town of Newmarket), Richmond Hill (Town of Richmond Hill), Whitchurch - Stouffville (Town of Whitchurch-Stouffville), King (Township of King).may cost $795 and could be completed in 10 business days. A 35 % RUSH premium would apply if required within 5 business days.
Opening, Renovating and Operating a Restaurant
There are many different kinds of restaurants and catering services. Whether you’re interested in starting a café, a bar, family style restaurant or event catering business, you will be part of the restaurant industry.
Popular types of restaurants and catering businesses include:
Every restaurant or catering business will be inspected and appraised, so restaurant owners should strive to maintain high health standards. When dealing with health issues, there are several standards that the restaurant owners need to be aware of including:
The Health Protection and Promotion Act of Ontario requires that every person who intends to commence to operate a restaurant give notice of intention to the local health unit in which the restaurant is to be located. Every person who operates a restaurant in Ontario must meet the requirements of the Ontario Food Premises Regulation (Ontario Regulation 562/90).
The Ontario Food Premises Regulation (Ontario Regulation 562/90) under the Health Protection and Promotion Act provides the minimum requirements for the operation of a restaurant. A Public Health Inspector (PHI) will review the food premises regulation with the restaurant operator before and during opening, renovating and operating a restaurant. A pre-opening inspection must be arranged with a Public Health Inspector (PHI) at least one week prior to opening of a restaurant.
Ontario Building Code Requirements to Open, Renovate and Operate a Restaurant
Whether it’s a small deli, food court take-out kiosk, or a fine dine-in restaurant, a commercial kitchen is a specially designed maze of directly connected and indirectly connected fixtures and plumbing appliances. The plumbing fixtures required are found in Parts 3 and 7 of the Ontario Building Code, while the sanitary connection requirements are fully described in Part 7 of the Ontario Building Code.
Ontario Building Code Div. A –22.214.171.124 Defined Terms
Hub drain means a drain opening for indirect liquid wastes,(a) that does not serve as a floor drain, (b) that has the same pipe size, material and venting requirements as a floor drain, (c) that has a flood level rim above the floor in which it is installed, and(d) that receives wastes that are discharged directly into the drain opening.
The directly connected receiving fixture is often deemed a hub drain when located below the floor level and more than one indirect waste connects to it. The Ontario Building Code only recognizes Floor Drains and Hub Drains. The term Funnel Drain is a manufactured device to simulate a Hub Drain to be sealed in a concrete floor. Funnel Floor Drains should only be permitted with an open throat so as to not restrict the flow of indirect liquid waste.
A Commercial Restaurant Dishwasher is a listed fixture in Table 126.96.36.199., requiring a (2”) trap. The discharging of the Commercial Dishwasher into the grease interceptor can cause issues due to the Hot Water and the Degreasing Chemicals used. Many municipalities specify that the Commercial Dishwasher connect downstream of the grease interceptor.
CAN CSA B481.4.07states an operator of a restaurant shall not use or permit the use of chemical agents, enzymes, bacteria, solvents, hot water, or other agents to facilitate the passage of Fat, Oil and Grease through a grease interceptor.
The Health Protection & Promotion Act Reg. 562.75(1)(a) states utensils shall be sanitized by immersion in clean water at a temperature of at least 77 degrees C for more than at least 45 seconds.
Lighting must be adequate to allow for the sanitary operation and maintenance of the restaurant with shatterproof coverings in areas where food is prepared and stored. Adequate lighting must be maintained during all hours of operation. Ensure sufficient bright light in restaurant kitchen, preparation and storage areas to facilitate cleaning. Adequate lighting is required in the Food preparation area to chop, bake, fry, sauté, as well as any other task that needs to be completed in the kitchen. Food preparation area lighting must meet Ontario Building Code requirements enforced by the local Building Department. To improve the safety of the kitchen staff and kitchen efficiency, adequate proper lighting is a must. Protective light covers are recommended for fluorescent lights. The requirements for the levels of illumination are regulated under the Ontario Building Code. Please contact local municipal Building and Fire Department for more information.
Ventilation in a restaurant kitchen is crucial. The specific ventilation requirements for washrooms and food preparation areas are regulated under the Ontario Building Code. All restaurant cooking equipment, dishwashing equipment and washrooms require mechanical ventilation vented to the outside. Mechanical ventilation over restaurant cooking equipment must be equipped with exhaust fan, canopy, filters, etc. Contact local Municipal Building and Licensing Department and the local Fire Department for specific details.
•A mezzanine shall be treated as part of the main floor area if any exiting from the mezzanine directs people down and through the main floor level – the occupant load calculated for the mezzanine is included in the main floor area calculation
•The main floor shall support both occupant loads
•A mezzanine that has separate exiting from the main floor area shall be considered as a separate floor area and shall have a separate maximum occupant loads posted on each level.
Determining Occupant Load for Restaurants
Floor Area (Table 3.17.1., Div. B)
•An occupant load of 1.1 sq. m net floor area per person for licensed restaurants (Table 188.8.131.52)
•Occupant load calculations are specific to the use of different areas with the establishment. For example; kitchen areas are calculated at 9.3 sq. m /person under Table 184.108.40.206.
•Washrooms are not included in the floor area calculation
•In no circumstance shall the required exits from the main building empty into an enclosed patio or a contained exterior space.
Hand Wash & Lavatory Basin
220.127.116.11.Lavatories, Appliances and Sinks
(1)A separate lavatory for the hand washing of employees shall be constructed in a location convenient for employees in each manufacturing, processing and preparation area.
Note: A wall hung basin, a wall hung “sink” or connected bar sink with a “sanitary” barrier have all been considered acceptable.
18.104.22.168.Lavatories, Appliances and Sinks
(2)If equipment and facilities for the cleaning and sanitizing of utensils are provided, they shall consist of,(a)mechanical equipment, or(b) drainage racks of corrosion-resistant materials and,(i) a three-compartment sink or three sinks, or(ii) a two - compartment sink or two sinks, where the first compartment or sink can be used effectively for washing and rinsing and the second compartment or sink can be used effectively for sanitizing.
Required Number of Water Closets (22.214.171.124., Div. B)
Universal toilet rooms, where required, shall comply with 126.96.36.199., Div. B of the building code.
Dining Rooms, Restaurants, Cafeteria & Alcoholic Beverage Establishments
Table 188.8.131.52.F. Plumbing Fixtures for Assembly Occupancies
Minimum Required Number of Water Closets and Lavatories for Employees
Employees of Each Sex 1 to 9 - Minimum Required Water Closets and Lavatories for Each Sex - 1
Employees of Each Sex 10 to 24 - Minimum Required Water Closets and Lavatories for Each Sex - 2
Employees of Each Sex 25 to 49 - Minimum Required Water Closets and Lavatories for Each Sex - 3
Employees of Each Sex 50 to 74 - Minimum Required Water Closets and Lavatories for Each Sex - 4
Employees of Each Sex 75 to 100 - Minimum Required Water Closets and Lavatories for Each Sex - 5
Employees of Each Sex over 100 - 6 plus 1 for each additional increment of 30 employees
Where a separate employee washroom is provided, the same room may be used by both female and male employees provided that,
(a) the total number of employees is not more than 5, and
(b) the door to the room can be locked from the inside.
Table 184.108.40.206.D. Water Closets for Assembly Occupancies
Persons of Each Sex 1 to 20 - Minimum Required Water Closets for Each Sex - 1
Persons of Each Sex 21 to 70 - Minimum Required Water Closets for Each Sex - 2
Persons of Each Sex 71 to 105 - Minimum Required Water Closets for Each Sex - 3
Persons of Each Sex 106 to 135 - Minimum Required Water Closets for Each Sex - 4
Persons of Each Sex 136 to 165 - Minimum Required Water Closets for Each Sex - 5
Persons of Each Sex 166 to 195 - Minimum Required Water Closets for Each Sex - 6
Persons of Each Sex 196 to 225 - Minimum Required Water Closets for Each Sex - 7
Persons of Each Sex 226 to 275 - Minimum Required Water Closets for Each Sex - 8
Persons of Each Sex 276 to 325 - Minimum Required Water Closets for Each Sex- 9
Persons of Each Sex 326 to 375 - Minimum Required Water Closets for Each Sex - 10
Persons of Each Sex 376 to 425 - Minimum Required Water Closets for Each Sex - 11
Each Sex Over 425 - 12 plus 1 for each additional increment of 50 persons of each sex in excess of 425
(7) Except as provided in Sentence (8), in every dining room, restaurant, cafeteria and alcoholic beverage establishment having not more than 40 seats, patrons are permitted to share the sanitary facilities provided for employees, and the minimum number of water closets and lavatories shall conform to Table 220.127.116.11.D based on,
(a) a male occupant load of 50% of the number of seats plus the number of male employees, and
(b) a female occupant load of 50% of the number of seats plus the number of female employees.
(8) Where a separate employee washroom is provided, the same room may be used by both female and male employees provided that,
(a) the total number of employees is not more than 5, and
(b) the door to the room can be locked from the inside.
(9) The number of employees in Sentences (6), to (8) shall be the maximum number of employees who are normally present on the premises at one time and shall include only those who are present for more than 25 per cent of the working day.
Establishments Used Primarily for the Consumption of Alcohol Beverages
Limited or No Food Service
Table 18.104.22.168.E. Water Closets for Assembly Occupancies
Number of Persons of Each Sex and Minimum Required Number of Water Closets for Each Sex
Persons of Each Sex 1 to 70 - Minimum Required Water Closets for Each Sex - 2
Persons of Each Sex 51 to 70 - Minimum Required Water Closets for Each Sex - 3
Persons of Each Sex 71 to 90 - Minimum Required Water Closets for Each Sex - 4
Persons of Each Sex 91 to 110 - Minimum Required Water Closets for Each Sex - 5
Persons of Each Sex 111 to 140 - Minimum Required Water Closets for Each Sex - 6
Persons of Each Sex 141 to 180 - Minimum Required Water Closets for Each Sex - 7
Persons of Each Sex 181 to 220 - Minimum Required Water Closets for Each Sex - 8
Persons of Each Sex 221 to 260 - Minimum Required Water Closets for Each Sex - 9
Over 260 - 10 plus 1 for each additional increment of 40 persons of each sex in excess of 260
Exit Capacity (22.214.171.124., Div. B)
6.1mm per person of exit width required (a 36” door may accommodate 150 persons) but shall not be permitted to accommodate more than half of the required occupant load as per 126.96.36.199.(6)B where 2 exits are required.
Fire Alarm System (188.8.131.52., Div. B)
A fire alarm system is required where the occupant load exceeds 150 persons. Fire alarms shall be designed by a competent person (Electrical Engineer).
Exit Signs (184.108.40.206.(8), Div. B)
Door Release Hardware (220.127.116.11., Div. B)
Door release hardware or “panic hardware” shall be provided on exit doors where the occupant load exceeds 100 persons.
Interceptor means a receptacle that is designed and installed to prevent oil, grease, sand or other materials from passing into a drainage system.
(1) Except for suites of residential occupancy, where a fixture discharges sewage that includes fats, oils or grease and is located in an area that food is cooked, processed or prepared, it shall discharge through a grease interceptor.
(5) Every interceptor shall have sufficient capacity to perform the service for which it is provided.
(8) The flow rate through a grease interceptor shall not exceed its rated capacity
(3) Where a grease interceptor is required by Sentence 18.104.22.168.(1), the interceptor shall conform to,
(a)CAN/CSA-B481.1, “Testing and Rating of Grease Interceptors Using Lard”, or
(b)CAN/CSA-B481.2, “Testing and Rating of Grease Interceptors Using Oil”.
CAN/CSA B481 Series 12 Grease Interceptors
The second edition of the CSA B481 Series of Standards, Grease interceptors consists of the following Standards:
(a) CSA B481.0, Material, design, and construction requirements for grease interceptors;
(b) CSA B481.1, Testing and rating of grease interceptors using lard;
(c) CSA B481.2, Testing and rating of grease interceptors using oil;
(d) CSA B481.3, Sizing, selection, location, and installation of grease interceptors;
(e) CSA B481.4, Maintenance of grease interceptors; and
(f) CSA B481.5, Testing and rating of grease interceptors equipped with a grease removal device.
Grease Interceptors are to be either CSA B481.1 or CSA B481.2 certified as per the Ontario Building Code (OBC)
Ontario Building Code (OBC) also requires a properly sized interceptor. CSA B481.3 Standard specifies sizing and installation requirement and includes calculations for peak flow rates. It also states that when a grease interceptor is required to service a dishwasher, it shall be a dedicated grease interceptor.
CSA B481.4 Standard is explicit with maintenance requirements
Gravity Grease Interceptors and Grease Recovery Devices (GRD) are acceptable devices in place of Hydro mechanical Grease Interceptors. GRD is covered in CSA B481.5
CSA B481.4 - Maintenance Highlights
Grease interceptors shall be serviced before the volume of Fats, Oil and Grease and solids exceeds 25% of the liquid volume of the grease interceptor.
Grease interceptors shall be serviced at least once every four weeks.
The servicing frequency shall be determined by monitoring the Fats, Oil and Grease accumulation in the grease interceptor to ensure that it does not exceed the maximum containment capacity (see Clause 5.1.1)
CSA B422.214.171.124.3 Chemical or other agents - An operator of a restaurant shall not use or permit the use of chemical agents, enzymes, bacteria, solvents, hot water, or other agents to facilitate the passage of Fats, Oil and Grease through a grease interceptor.
(1)Every interceptor shall be designed so that it can be readily cleaned.
(2)Every grease interceptor shall be designed so that it does not become air bound.
126.96.36.199.Connections to Sanitary Drainage Systems
(1)Every fixture shall be directly connected to a sanitary drainage system, except that,
(d) the following devices shall be indirectly connected to a drainage system:
(i) a device for the display, storage, preparation or processing of food or drink,
(4)Every waste pipe carrying waste from a device for the display, storage, preparation or processing of food or drink, shall be trapped and have a minimum diameter equal to the diameter of the drain outlet from the device.
Note: Since the smallest certified trap available is 1 ¼”, most traps are made out of pressure fittings to maintain the minimum 38mm trap seal.
(1)Where a fixture or device is indirectly connected, the connections shall be made by terminating the fixture drain above the flood level rim of a directly connected fixture to form an air break.
(2)The size of the air breaks hall be at least 25 mm
Ontario Building Code Div. A –188.8.131.52 Defined Terms Indirectly connected means not directly connected.
Air break means the unobstructed vertical distance between the lowest point of an indirectly connected waste pipe and the flood level rim of the fixture into which it discharges
184.108.40.206.Restricted Locations of Indirect Connections and Traps
(1)Indirect connections or any trap that may overflow shall not be located in a crawl space or any other unfrequented area.
220.127.116.11.Traps for Sanitary Drainage Systems
(5)A grease interceptor shall not serve as a fixture trap and each fixture discharging through the interceptor shall be trapped and vented
(7)A grease interceptor shall be located as close as possible to the fixture or fixtures it serves.
(9)All grease and oil interceptors shall have an internal flow control ….…. and where the head will exceed five feet, a secondary flow control shall be required.
18.104.22.168.Cleanouts for Drainage Systems
(8)A cleanout shall be provided to permit the cleaning of the piping immediately downstream of an interceptor.
(9)Every indirect drainage pipe carrying waste from a food receptacle shall have a cleanout access at every change of direction of more than 45º.
22.214.171.124.Venting for Traps
(4)A trap need not be protected by a vent pipe,
(b) where it forms part of an indirect drainage system.
126.96.36.199.Venting of Interceptors
(6)Every grease interceptor shall have a vent pipe that is not less than 1 ½ in. size connected to the outlet pipe, that connects to the plumbing venting system.
(7)A vent pipe shall be provided within 1 500 mm of the inlet to a grease interceptor complete with a cleanout o provide the vent pipe.
188.8.131.52.Lengths for other Vent Pipes
(1)When sizing an additional circuit vent, offset relief vent, relief vent, yoke vent and the vent pipe for an interceptor, dilution tank, sanitary sewage tank or sump, or manhole, length is not taken into consideration.
Basic Restaurant Requirements
RESTAURANT BUILDING MAINTENANCE
• A restaurant shall operate and be maintained in such a manner that it does not pose a health hazard. Sneeze Guards are required for salad bars, steam tables, dessert carts etc., which are used in public areas. If bulk ice cream is served, a running dipper-well for the scoop should be provided.
• Storage space for employee personal belongings must be provided and must be away from the food preparation area.
• Restaurant floor and floor-coverings must be tight, smooth and non-absorbent (includes kitchen, storage area, washrooms, behind bar). Examples: vinyl flooring, ceramic tile. Floors in the food preparation and dishwashing areas must be constructed of materials that are easily cleaned. Carpeting is allowed in dining area only. Walls and ceilings must have an easily cleanable finish. Acoustic tile is not
acceptable in a food preparation area. A painted surface must withstand frequent cleaning. Walk-in cooler/freezer floor must covered with a smooth, non-absorbent and washable surface
• The walls and ceilings of rooms and passageways shall be maintained in a sanitary condition.
• Garbage must be stored in a separate room, compartment or bin. The garbage area must be constructed and maintained in such a manner to exclude insects and vermin and to prevent odours and health hazards on the interior and exterior of the premises. Garbage containers or facilities must be provided inside and outside the establishment. The containers or facilities must be durable, easily
cleanable, rodent proof and must be provided in sufficient numbers and located at convenient locations both inside and outside.
• Any article or piece of equipment used in the restaurant kitchen shall be of sound and tight construction, kept in good repair and made of such material that it can be readily cleaned and sanitized.
• Equipment and utensils that come in direct contact with food shall be corrosion-resistant, non-toxic and free from cracks, crevices and open seams.
• All food shall be stored on racks, shelves or pallets no less than 15 cm (6”) above the floor. Stainless steel or pre-finished shelves are recommended for food storage. Shelves must be at least 15cm (6") off the floor.
• All food shall be protected from contamination and adulteration. Enclosed protective containers, cabinets or shields shall be provided to protect all food displayed for sale or service. Food storage containers must be made of food grade plastic or other non-corrosive food grade material.
• The dispensing scoop handles must extend well above the water line so that the server’s hand does not come in contact with the water. If ice cream, frozen confections or desserts are served, a dipperwell with potable running water shall be provided for storing dispensing scoops.
• An adequate supply of potable water must be provided for the operation of a restaurant. Potable water means the absence of total coliform and E.coli in the source of the water.
• Hot and cold running water under pressure must always be available in areas where food is processed, prepared or manufactured or where equipment and utensils are washed.
• Handwashing Sink - Separate handwashing sinks with liquid soap in dispenser and paper towels must be conveniently located in each food preparation area. There must be at least one handwashing sink in each food preparation area. This sink must be provided with its own supply of potable hot and cold running water under pressure, liquid soap in a dispenser and single use paper towels.
Adequate sanitizer (i.e. Bleach, Quaternary Ammonium or Iodine) and sanitizer test strips should be provided
• Dishwashers and Sinks for Washing and Sanitizing Equipment and Utensils - Separate Two-compartment sink with a drain rack is required where only single service utensils are provided for the service or sale of food.
If multi-service equipment and utensils (i.e. reusable forks, plates, etc.) are used by patrons, one of the following is required:
a) A three-compartment sink of adequate size for the manual wash, rinse and sanitization procedure. Adequate size means that all
equipment and utensils can be immersed in each of the sinks;
b) A commercial-style mechanical dishwasher equipped with a temperature gauge, either a high temperature machine (capable of reaching 82°C) or a low temperature machine with chemical sanitizing rinse.
For restaurant equipment and utensils that are too large to fit into that mechanical dishwasher, a two-compartment sink of adequate size must be made available for the manual wash, rinse and sanitation procedure. There must be a supply of test strips to accurately determine the effectiveness of the sanitizing agent.
• Vegetable / Food Preparation Sink
In addition to a handwashing sink and sinks for washing and sanitizing equipment and utensils, a food preparation sink may be required for washing vegetables, produce, emptying pots, etc.
• Janitorial/Slop Sink
A separate mop-sink is required to prevent contamination of food and dishwashing areas. A janitorial/slop sink must be provided for the sanitary disposal of liquid, floor and chemical wastes.
Temperature and Thermometers
• Restaurant refrigerators must be capable of keeping cold foods cold at 4°C or below and restaurant freezers must keep frozen foods frozen at -18°C or below. Ensure to provide enough space for storing ingredients, raw foods, foods being chilled, leftovers, etc.
• Adequate hot holding equipment is required to keep hot foods hot at 60°C or above (i.e. steam table, etc.).
• An accurate, visible and conveniently located indicating thermometer is required in each cold, hot and frozen unit that is used for the storage of hazardous foods.
• An accurate indicating probe thermometer that can be easily read is required to measure the internal temperature of hazardous foods
(i.e. whole turkey, chicken, hamburger, etc.).
• Commercial Dishwashers - All restaurant dishwashers must be provided with accurate temperature gauges. High temperature dishwashers must reach a temperature of 82° C (180° F) in the final rinse cycle. Low temperature dishwashers must be provided with approved sanitizing chemicals.
Restaurant Sanitary Facilities / Washrooms
• At least one sanitary facility shall be provided for each gender and must have a sign clearly indicating the gender for which they are intended.
• All restaurant washrooms must be equipped with liquid soap in a dispenser and paper (single use) towels for proper hand washing.
Every sanitary facility shall be equipped with a continuous supply of: potable hot and cold running water under pressure, toilet paper, liquid soap in dispenser, single use paper towels and a durable, easy to clean receptacle for used towels and other waste material.
• The number of handwash sinks, urinals and toilets required in restaurant washrooms is regulated under the Ontario Building Code.
The Ontario Building Code may require that separate facilities be provided for staff and customers. Contact local municipal Building and Licensing Department for information about washroom requirements. Restaurant washrooms must not open directly into any food processing, preparation, handling, distribution, selling, manufacturing, or serving areas.
OTHER CONSIDERATION BEFORE OPENING AND OPERATING A RESTAURANT
• If the restaurant water supply is from a private well, then the well water must be free of Total Coliform and E. Coli bacteria. The food premises may also be classified under Ontario Regulation 319/08 as a Small Drinking Water System.
PRIVATE SEWAGE DISPOSAL
• If the restaurant does not have municipal sewers then it must have a sewage disposal system which complies with Part 8 of the Ontario Building Code.
• An application must be submitted to the Municipal Health Department to verify that the performance of the existing private sewage
disposal system is satisfactory. A permit may be required for a change of use, alteration, repair or construction of a new system. If you are not the owner of the property, a letter of authorization from the owner to release information to Municipal Health Unit is required.
RESTAURANT FOOD HANDLER TRAINING
It is strongly recommended that there is a Certified Food Handler on site. We encourage that all staff who handle food be certified in safe food preparation and handling. Education of both restaurant employees and managers is probably the most effective method of obtaining compliance with the regulations. Food handler training enables people to do their jobs well. It improves restaurant staff
efficiency, gives them a sense of pride and promotes professionalism.
ADDITIONAL LEGISLATION WHICH MAY APPLY TO A RESTAURANT INCLUDES BUT IS NOT LIMITED TO
a) Alcohol Gaming Commission of Ontario (Liquor License)
b) Ontario Building Code (Local Building Department)
c) Ontario Fire Code (Local Fire Department)
d) Local Municipal Bylaws (i.e. Zoning)
e) Smoke Free Ontario Act
Before Opening, Renovating and Operating a Restaurant
ˇ Contact local Public Health Inspector for food premises requirements
ˇ Review Food Premises Regulation online (O. Reg. 562/90)
ˇ Contact municipal Building and Zoning Departments for any bylaw requirements
ˇ Provide owner/operator name, name of business, business address and telephone number when established to municipal authorities.
ˇ Submit and review the restaurant floor plan and menu with a Public Health Inspector
ˇ Notify a Public Health Inspector for a pre-opening restaurant inspection
The above Restaurant Checklist does not exclude other requirements that may be necessary after the review process. Review all requirements with the Public Health Inspector before opening, renovating and operating a restaurant.
Fats, Oil and Grease Generated from Normal Operations of Restaurants
Grease is commonly washed into the plumbing system during clean-up via kitchen sink. As it cools, it congeals & decreases pipe capacity both inside the restaurant and in municipal sewers. Fats, Oil and Grease blocks restaurant drain, neighbors’ & can overflow into environment (spill)
Toronto Sewers By-law 681-10B(1) states:
Every owner or operator of a restaurant or other industrial, commercial or institutional premises where food is cooked, processed or prepared, which premises is connected directly or indirectly to a sewer, shall take all necessary measures to ensure that oil & grease are prevented from entering the sewer
Toronto Sewers By-law 681-10B(2) states:
The owner or operator of a restaurant as set out in Subsection B(1) shall install, operate, and properly maintain a grease interceptor in any piping system at its premises that connects directly or indirectly to a sewer. The grease interceptors shall be installed in compliance with the most current requirements of the Ontario Building Code.
A grease trap/interceptor is a plumbing device designed to intercept/reduce the amount of Fats, Oil and Grease from entering the sanitary sewer.
Grease trap/interceptor functions to separate Fats, Oil and Grease‘s (~90% of weight of water) by gravity & coalescence and contains a separation chamber which allows Fats, Oil and Grease to rise to the surface. The most common type of Grease trap/interceptor is a hydromechanical batch-flow grease interceptor with a flow rating of 26 L/min (7 gpm) to 380 L/min (100 gpm). These are small and often are found under the sinks. A Grease Removal Device automatically removes the grease to an outside vessel. Gravity grease interceptors are large in-ground interceptors that are 1,000 gallons or more and have a longer retention time compared to the hydromechanical grease interceptor.
A grease interceptor is often referred to as a grease trap. A grease trap should be connected to any fixture or drain that discharges wastewater containing oil and grease, including sinks for washing dishes, floor drains, drains serving self-cleaning exhaust hoods and cooking equipment. Wastewater enters the grease trap. The water cools & the grease and oil harden and float to the top of the trap. The rest of the wastewater flows through the trap and out the exit pipe to the sanitary sewer. Solids settle to the bottom. The Fats, Oil and Grease and solids remain in the trap. When warm fats, oils and grease make their way into the plumbing system, over time they build up and cause a number of problems, including blocked sewers.
Blocked sewers can lead to a sewage backup into the restaurant, neighbouring properties or even local creeks and rivers. Blocked sewers can also lead to increased vermin and contact with disease-causing organisms, all of which pose serious health risks to anyone working in or visiting the restaurant.
Issues caused by blocked sewers could ultimately lead to a temporary or permanent closure of the restaurant by Municipal Public Health Unit. Costs incurred by the municipality as a result of a grease-blocked sewer or damage to the sewers will be charged back to those responsible.
Following steps can help reduce costly maintenance and boost environmental protection.
Good Restaurant Kitchen Management Practices
Indoor Restaurant Practices:
• Use rubber scrapers and/or paper towel to remove food solids and grease from pots, pans and wares before washing. Dispose of food solids in the Green Bin.
• Install and maintain screens over all sinks and floor drains to capture food solids. Dispose of collected food solids in the Green Bin.
• Keep cooking oil out of the drains. Waste oil can be sold to rendering facilities.
• Use absorption material to soak up Fats, Oil and Grease spills on the kitchen floor and under fryer baskets. Dispose of soiled material in the Green Bin or garbage (depending on the absorption material used, e.g. paper towel, rag, etc.).
• Fats, Oil and Grease from restaurant exhaust system filters and hoods should be recycled or soaked up using absorption material and disposed of in the Green Bin or garbage (depending on the absorption material used, e.g. paper towel, rag, etc.).
• Clean the restaurant grease trap before the grease and solids combined reach 25% of the trap’s liquid volume. A minimum cleaning frequency of once per month is generally recommended.
• Maintain a frequent cleaning schedule of complete pump-outs of the grease interceptor and include inspections to confirm the grease trap is operating properly.
• Use a certified Ministry of Environment and Climate Change (MOECC) waste hauler to pump-out and clean the grease trap. These companies can provide operational information on the grease trap, including efficiency, possible weaknesses (i.e. warping or corrosion) and helpful upgrades/devices.
• Do not discharge hot water into the grease trap as this may melt the Fats, Oil and Grease or displace the contents of the grease interceptor, where it can harden and block your drain line.
• Do not add any enzymes or other additives into the grease trap, they will only move Fats, Oil and Grease down the restaurant sewer pipe where it could harden and block the pipe.
• It is recommended that not to use garbage disposers/grinders as liquefied food waste will fill up the grease trap quicker leading to more cleaning.
Outdoor Restaurant Practices:
• Ensure recycling barrels and containers for transporting oil are covered and secured from spillage or tipping over.
• Ensure Fats, Oil and Grease and wastewater does not enter the catch basin/sewer grate outside. This includes:
✓ Wastewater from inside the restaurant (e.g. mop water)
✓ Wastewater from outdoor cleaning
✓ Leakage from waste/oil bins
✓ Anything other than rain water or melted snow that enters a catch basin can cause damage to the sewer system, pollute the environment, harm aquatic habitat, create a public health concern and generate unpleasant odours.
• Storage areas shall be kept clean and tidy.
• A minimum clearance of 18 inches from sprinkler heads and heat/smoke detectors shall be maintained.
• Never block fire exit doors.
• Fire extinguishers shall remain accessible and in open view.
• Electrical panels and sprinkler system controls shall be kept clear of obstructions.
• Never store combustibles within 3 feet of refrigeration equipment, electrical equipment or in the furnace/ boiler room.
Flammable & Combustible Liquids
• All flammable liquids shall be stored in approved containers or cabinets.
• Flammable/ combustible liquids are to be stored in accordance with the Ontario Fire Code Part 4.
• Shall be kept a minimum of 3 feet away from electrical or heating equipment.
• If applicable, shall be stored in approved containers.
Use of a dry chemical agent, or a single nozzle designed to protect multiple cooking appliances are no longer permitted in commercial kitchens. Typical cooking temperature for cooking oil is 205°C. Flammable oil vapours will form at 230°C, and spontaneous ignition of cooking oil will occur at 310°C - which is very hard to extinguish. Energy efficient cooking equipment, such as well-insulated fryers, retain more heat and can also result in fires that are very difficult to extinguish.
The current standards for Commercial Kitchen Fire Suppression Systems are UL 300, and NFPA 17A - Standard for Wet Chemical Extinguishing Systems & NFPA 96 - Standard for Ventilation Control and Fire Protection of Commercial Cooking.
Commercial cooking equipment exhausts and fire protection systems shall be installed and maintained in conformance with NFPA 96,
“Ventilation Control and Fire Protection of Commercial Cooking Operations”
Ensure wet chemical, alkali-based chemical or “K” rated portable fire extinguishers are provided to protect commercial cooking equipment and are readily available for use in an emergency.
Check cylinder gauges to ensure pressure is in operating range (within green area).
Check to ensure seal (tie) has not been removed from pull out security pin.
Hoods, grease removal devices, fan, ducts and other equipment shall be checked and cleaned at frequent intervals, prior to surfaces becoming heavily contaminated with grease or oily sludge.
Every 6 Months
Trained and qualified persons in conformance with the Ontario Fire Code, Section 184.108.40.206, shall perform inspection and servicing of fire extinguishing system.
Inside the kitchen of any restaurant a lot of heat is produced, and wasted. Ovens are constantly on and being opened. The heat gets sucked up an exhaust stack and released into the air. Meanwhile, under a separate process, natural gas is used to heat up municipal water and, in the winter, the fresh air coming into a restaurant through an intake vent. Why buy gas to heat a restaurant when thousands of dollars of that heat is sent up an exhaust stack every month? Install a system that captures otherwise wasted kitchen heat and uses it to pre-heat water and restaurant air which will drop gas consumption for building heating and hot water by 75 to 80%.In the summer, when building heat isn't required, all of the waste heat goes toward pre-heating water. Systems vary in size and cost depending on the restaurant. But energy savings on a $75,000 retrofit, for example, have translated into a payback period ranging from two to three years. If the heat recovery system is built into a new restaurant as it's constructed, the payback time can be as little as one year because both the exhaust and makeup air unit they would have to purchase anyway.
for further information.
Requirements for Compliance with A.S.H.R.A.E. 90.1-2010
Restaurant and dining facilities use a large amount of energy per floor area. Commercial kitchen exhaust hoods contribute greatly to that energy use. Energy is used both to exhaust operate fans and to heat and cool makeup air that is then exhausted. ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010 specify energy efficiency requirements for commercial restaurant kitchen exhaust hoods. Energy can be saved by using transfer air—conditioned air from adjacent spaces—as much as possible for replacement air, minimizing the need for conditioned makeup air. In larger restaurant kitchens, fan energy is saved by reducing airflow when cooking activity is low.
Two mandatory requirements apply to all restaurant kitchens are makeup air is limited to maximize transfer air, and short-circuit kitchen rangehoods are not allowed. Short-circuit kitchen rangehoods inject more than 10% of unconditioned makeup air directly into the kitchen rangehood rather than into the space. These kitchen hoods require higher airflows to effectively contain smoke, increasing overall energy use. In larger kitchen facilities, ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 limits the volume of air for kitchen exhaust to an appropriate but not excessive level. Larger kitchens must also meet one of three energy efficiency requirements: (1) use 50% transfer air, (2) use variable speed hood fans, or (3) use exhaust heat recovery.
The variable speed fan option or demand ventilation system includes controls that sense temperature and smoke under the hood and vary the speed to maintain safe and effective kitchen exhaust. The demand ventilation system must be applied to 75% of total kitchen hood flow, must be able to reduce exhaust flow to half, and must modulate makeup airflow. Controls maintain hood airflow at the levels needed to capture and contain smoke, effluent, and combustion products. Performance testing verifiesproper operation of the demand ventilation system.
Most kitchens have refrigerators,walk-in freezers, coolers, ice machines, etc. Heat can be extracted from the condensing units of this refrigeration equipments and used to pre-heat water and/or air during the heating season. If the refrigeration equipment is air cooled and their condensers are located within the kitchen, heat is recovered whenever the equipment runs—summer and winter. In summer this increases the cooling load and probably negates any wintertime energy savings. If the air-cooled condensers are located near an outside wall, it may be possible to locate them within an enclosed area and provide dampers and a fan to cool the enclosure with outside air in summer. In winter the dampers could be reset to close off the outside air and circulate the warm air into the kitchen.
Another way to recover heat from refrigeration systems is through a desuperheater - a small refrigerant-to-water heat exchanger designed to recover heat from the outlet of the refrigeration compressor. Desuperheaters can provide up to 140°F water, but since they are not a standard option on refrigeration skids, they must be field-installed, which increases their cost and reduces their economic viability considerably. Restaurants—with their open flames, hot equipment, electrical connections, cooking oils, cleaning chemicals and paper products—have all the ingredients for a fire to flame out of control. A fire can devastate restaurant business, leading to lost revenues and even permanent closure.
Restaurant Staff Training
Train Restaurant staff to:
The Fire Protection and Prevention Act 1997 states that 'every person' who contravenes any provisions of the Fire Code; and every Director or Officer of a Corporation who knowingly concurs in such Contravention, is guilty of an offence and on a conviction is liable to a fine of not more than $50,000 for an individual or $100,000 for a Corporation or to imprisonment for a term of not more than one year or both. Directors and officers who know the company has committed a violation of the fire code are guilty of an offence; and on conviction is liable to a fine of not more than $50,000. Failure to comply with an inspection order can result in a fine of $20,000 per day.
Plans and specifications to establish, build, change a restaurant or significantly renovate, require approval by a Public Health Inspector.
The layout of the restaurant is important for good sanitation. Poorly arranged equipment may create health hazards and affect the economic viability of the restaurant. Good planning should allow for the smooth and orderly flow of work from receiving to serving and the return of soiled dishes and utensils to the dishwashing area. The design, construction and installation of restaurant equipment are important to the sanitary operation of a restaurant. An important issue to consider in the planning stage is the size of the restaurant kitchen to ensure it is large enough to accommodate the number and types of meals you intend to prepare and the number of staff required to work in the area. It is also important to consider the number of sinks required and the most appropriate location for each sink in order to allow for the plumbing to be roughed in the proper location. We advise and assist you in preparing plans and developing layouts.
Municipal building permits must be obtained for new restaurant, remodeling to freshen up, or to rebrand an existing restaurant. Renovations to an existing restaurant provide an opportunity to examine industry trends and to see where the restaurant fits in, while also differentiating from other restaurants in the neighbourhood. Periodic remodeling and/or rebranding of an existing restaurant to strategize ways to keep the restaurant relevant in a changing marketplace is not only important, it can be vital to success in the ever-changing restaurant industry.
All the required building permit drawings should be in compliance with the applicable Ontario Building Code and municipal by-laws. Our expertise and guidance can save a great deal of time and money while also providing an attractive and functional restaurant.
We are experienced in dealing with the unique challenges of restaurants. We pride ourselves on work diligently to create real value for each and every client. Having vast experience in engineering design, we offer effective, innovative and cost efficient concept designing, design detailing and construction drawings to our clients. Our team's proficiency in conceptualizing designs and plan in accordance with our clients' requirements has made us very successful.
Our fee for preparing the necessary drawings obtain municipal building permit for non-structural renovation of restaurants is as follows:
Up to 999 sqft $1,295
1,000 sq ft to 1,499 sq ft $ 1,795
1,500 sq ft to 1,999 sq ft $ 2,295
2,000 sq ft to 2,499sq ft $ 2,795
2,500 sq ft to 2,999 sq ft $ 3,295
3,000 sq ft to 3,499 sq ft $3,795
3,500 sq ft to 3,999 sq ft $4,295
and could be completed in 10 business days. A 35 % RUSH premium would apply if required within 5 business days.
If required, structural drawings, heat loss/heat gain calculations, ventilation calculations, kitchenhood design, makeup air design, duct sizing, sprinkler drawings, electrical drawings, fire alarm drawings, etc may cost extra.
Costly dealership showroom expansion and renovation projects are inevitable for auto dealerships due to the competitive pressures and the current vehicle sales environment. Since the brisk pace of recent car sales, vehivle dealerships renovate and modernize their showrooms to compete for buyers' attention in a highly competitive marketplace. All the automakers have strict showrooms specifications, including uniformity for their showrooms to maintain consistent branding.
The automobile dealership car showrooms are not considered storage garages and are subject to 220.127.116.11.(3) of Ontario Building Code.
18.104.22.168.(3) Ontario Building Code.Required Ventilation
"Except for Group C and Group F occupancies, mechanical ventilation throughout the occupied zone shall be not less than 7.5 L/s (15.9 cfm) per person of outdoor air."
The automobile dealership car showrooms should have mechanical ventilation throughout the occupied zone shall be not less than 7.5 L/s (15.9 cfm) per person of outdoor air.
22.214.171.124. of Ontario Building Code - Ventilation of Storage and Repair Garages
"...an enclosed storage garage shall have a mechanical ventilation system designed to ...(b) provide, during operating hours, a continuous supply of fresh air at a rate equal to not less than 3.9 L/s (8.3 cfm) for each square metre of floor area..."
The automobile repair garages should have a continuous supply of fresh air, during operating hours at a rate equal to not less than 3.9 L/s (8.3 cfm) for each square metre of floor area.
Our licensed Professional Engineers have extensive experience in designing commercial onsite septic systems in Ontario including City of Toronto, Peel Region (Brampton, Mississauga and Caledon), Halton Region (Burlington, Oakville, Milton, and Halton Hills), Brant County, City of Hamilton, Haldimand County, Norfolk County, Niagara Region (Niagara Falls, Port Colborne, St. Catharines, Thorold, Welland, Fort Erie, Grimsby, Lincoln, Niagara-on-the-Lake, Pelham, Wainfleet and West Lincoln), City of Brantford, City of London, Town of St. Marys, City of St. Thomas, City of Stratford, Oxford County (Woodstock, Ingersoll, Tillsonburg, Blandford-Blenheim, East Zorra-Tavistock, Norwich, South-West Oxford and Zorra), Waterloo Region (Kitchener, Cambridge, Waterloo, Woolwich, Wilmot, Wellesley, and North Dumfries), City of Guelph, Wellington County (Centre Wellington, Erin, Guelph / Eramosa, Mapleton, Minto, Puslinch, and Wellington North), Dufferin County (Melancthon, Shelburne. Mono. Mulmur. Amaranth, East Garafraxa, Orangeville and Grandvalley), Bruce County (Saugeen Shores, Kincardine, Brockton, South Bruce Peninsula, Arran–Elderslie. Huron-Kinloss, South Bruce, and Northern Bruce Peninsula), Grey County (Chatsworth, Georgian Bluffs, Grey Highlands, Hanover, Meaford, Owen Sound, Southgate, The Blue Mountains and West Grey), York Region (Aurora, East Gwillimbury, Georgina, King, Markham, Newmarket, Richmond Hill, Vaughan and Whitchurch–Stouffville), Durham Region (Ajax, Brock, Clarington, Oshawa, Pickering, Scugog, Uxbridge and Whitby), Quinte West, Hastings County (Bancroft, Deseronto, Centre Hastings, Hastings Highlands, Carlow/Mayo, Faraday, Limerick, Madoc, Marmora and Lake, Stirling-Rawdon, Tudor and Cashel, Tweed, Tyendinaga and Wollaston), Northumberland County (Brighton, Cobourg, Port Hope, Trent Hills, Alnwick / Haldimand, Cramahe and Township of Hamilton), City of Peterborough, Haliburton County (Algonquin Highlands, Dysart, Bruton, Clyde, Dudley, Eyre, Guilford, Harburn, Harcourt, Havelock, Highlands East and Minden Hills), City of Kawartha Lakes, Simcoe County (Bradford West Gwillimbury, Collingwood, Innisfil, Midland, New Tecumseth, Penetanguishene, Wasaga Beach, Adjala–Tosorontio, Clearview, Essa, Oro-Medonte, Ramara, Severn, Springwater, Tay, and Tiny), City of Barrie, City of Orillia, and District of Muskoka (Bracebridge, Gravenhurst, Huntsville, Georgian Bay, Lake of Bays and Muskoka Lakes),
Commercial and industrial properties in rural areas rely upon onsite septic systems for their sewage disposal. In the 1970s, the responsibility for overseeing the installation of commercial septic system systems in Ontario was transferred from the Ministry of Health to the Ministry of Environment. Afterwards, regulations governing private onsite septic systems were then transferred from the Ministry of Environment to the Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing and subsequently incorporated into the Ontario Building Code. Part 8 of the Ontario Building Code governs the design, construction, operation and maintenance of onsite commercial septic systems up to a capacity of daily sewage flow of 10,000 litres on one individual lot. In most areas, the local municipality’s Building Department examines building permit applications for proposed construction of commercial septic system, issues building permits for construction of commercial septic systems, and does inspections for commercial septic systems regulated under the Part 8 of the Ontario Building Code. In some areas, this approval responsibility has been delegated to local Conservation Authorities or Health Units.
Onsite commercial septic systems that are greater than daily sewage flow of 10,000 litres, or if a single property contains several small commercial septic systems (less than daily sewage flow of 10,000 litres each) but the combined capacity of the systems exceeds daily sewage flow of 10,000 litres, are subject to Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change approval. In Ontario, an engineered design is required for all commercial septic systems with a Design Flow greater than daily sewage flow of 10,000 litres and is administered by the Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change.
The two main factors that dictate the size and complexity of a commercial septic system are the maximum amount of waste water that the building could produce on a daily basis, and soil/site conditions. Geotechnical investigation including proper soil testing ensures the septic system meets the specific requirements of a site. Enlisting the help of a qualified and registered professional engineering firm is a key element to the successful commercial septic system design. Our licensed professional engineers design onsite commercial septic systems that will work best for the property based on the specific site-specific characteristics including:
The rate at which the waste water will be absorbed into the soil is called a "T" time. "T" time is equal to the number of minutes it takes for the water level to drop per cm in a water filled hole in the receiving soil. In sandy soil a typical T time is less than 10 (meaning it took less than 10 minutes for the water level to drop 1 cm in the water filled hole). But in sandy loam soil the T time could be 20 or more because the smaller soil particles are slowing the rate of absorption. The worst soil though is clay where the T time is typically well over 50 because clay particles are so fine and tightly packed. Once the maximum amount of waste water that the building could produce on a daily basis (Daily Sewage Flow) and the "T" time is identified, we can then figure out how large the septic system has to be. Each type of system then has a different equation to be used to figure out the size of the septic system.
Municipal Health Units provide permits for and inspects all new construction of commercial septic systems to ensure that minimum requirements of the Part 8 of the Ontario Building Code are met.
Classifications of septic systems:
Approval for onsite commercial septic system is required in all parts of Ontario including City of Toronto, Peel Region (Brampton, Mississauga and Caledon), Halton Region (Burlington, Oakville, Milton, and Halton Hills), Brant County, City of Hamilton, Haldimand County, Norfolk County, Niagara Region (Niagara Falls, Port Colborne, St. Catharines, Thorold, Welland, Fort Erie, Grimsby, Lincoln, Niagara-on-the-Lake, Pelham, Wainfleet and West Lincoln), City of Brantford, City of London, Town of St. Marys, City of St. Thomas, City of Stratford, Oxford County (Woodstock, Ingersoll, Tillsonburg, Blandford-Blenheim, East Zorra-Tavistock, Norwich, South-West Oxford and Zorra), Waterloo Region (Kitchener, Cambridge, Waterloo, Woolwich, Wilmot, Wellesley, and North Dumfries), City of Guelph, Wellington County (Centre Wellington, Erin, Guelph / Eramosa, Mapleton, Minto, Puslinch, and Wellington North), Dufferin County (Melancthon, Shelburne. Mono. Mulmur. Amaranth, East Garafraxa, Orangeville and Grandvalley), Bruce County (Saugeen Shores, Kincardine, Brockton, South Bruce Peninsula, Arran–Elderslie. Huron-Kinloss, South Bruce, and Northern Bruce Peninsula), Grey County (Chatsworth, Georgian Bluffs, Grey Highlands, Hanover, Meaford, Owen Sound, Southgate, The Blue Mountains and West Grey), York Region (Aurora, East Gwillimbury, Georgina, King, Markham, Newmarket, Richmond Hill, Vaughan and Whitchurch–Stouffville), Durham Region (Ajax, Brock, Clarington, Oshawa, Pickering, Scugog, Uxbridge and Whitby), Quinte West, Hastings County (Bancroft, Deseronto, Centre Hastings, Hastings Highlands, Carlow/Mayo, Faraday, Limerick, Madoc, Marmora and Lake, Stirling-Rawdon, Tudor and Cashel, Tweed, Tyendinaga and Wollaston), Northumberland County (Brighton, Cobourg, Port Hope, Trent Hills, Alnwick / Haldimand, Cramahe and Township of Hamilton), City of Peterborough, Haliburton County (Algonquin Highlands, Dysart, Bruton, Clyde, Dudley, Eyre, Guilford, Harburn, Harcourt, Havelock, Highlands East and Minden Hills), City of Kawartha Lakes, Simcoe County (Bradford West Gwillimbury, Collingwood, Innisfil, Midland, New Tecumseth, Penetanguishene, Wasaga Beach, Adjala–Tosorontio, Clearview, Essa, Oro-Medonte, Ramara, Severn, Springwater, Tay, and Tiny), City of Barrie, City of Orillia, and District of Muskoka (Bracebridge, Gravenhurst, Huntsville, Georgian Bay, Lake of Bays and Muskoka Lakes),
Septic systems dispose of sewage and rely on the soil to absorb and disperse waste water. They are designed to keep effluent underground and to filter waste water before it reaches groundwater, streams or lakes. “Sewage” can include domestic waste water from toilets, showers and bath tubs and kitchen and laundry wastes.
An on-site private septic system has two basic parts: a septic tank which receives the untreated sewage and in which solids settle out, and a leaching bed (tile bed) through which the liquid waste portion of the sewage is dispersed into the soil. The main function of the septic tank is to allow solids to settle and to let clear effluent flow to the tile bed. Biological reactions within the tank will break down some solids to liquids and gases, but the retained solids will eventually accumulate in the tank. Only clear liquid waste should be discharged from the tank to the tile bed. This liquid waste will then undergo further biological break-down and treatment.
To ensure efficient operation of the entire system, it is important that the sludge, scum and solids which can accumulate in the septic tank do not enter the leaching bed (tile bed). The septic tank should be inspected by a licensed professional at least once every two years and the tank pumped out when necessary.
Our licenced Professional Engineers design commercial septic system to match the quantity and quality of waste water of the facility. A coffee shop or a gas station at a busy highway may have thousands of visitors per day, many of whom use the toilet facilities - that's why they stop at a coffee shop or a gas station. Waste water from a typical restaurant may contain fat, oil, grease, liquid food waste including coffee and soup, flour, food scraps, cleaners, disinfectants and degreasers – all of which need to be properly treated and or disposed to avoid damage to the the septic bed.
Design of an onsite septic system for new construction on a typical lakefront property is always a challenge because of the very limited area available for the septic system due to the the required minimum setbacks from the lake, well, property lines and the proposed structure.
A more holistic commercial septic system design approach is required when designing commercial septic systems for facilities and buildings that produce high strength sewage. Challenges of high-strength sewage applications include high organic and nitrogen loading, highly variable flow rates, use of disinfectants, and untrained employees. The Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change requires strip malls, shopping plazas, truck stops, service stations, motels, restaurants, bars or lounges, coffee shops, service stations, campgrounds, golf courses, etc., to treat their sewage before it enters the natural soil. Organics and solids are to be removed before subsurface disposal, and treatment objectives for phosphorus, nitrate-nitrogen, and pathogens are becoming more prevalent before subsurface disposal.
Advanced Septic Treatment Systems
Advanced septic treatment systems are required when:
• dealing with properties with inadequate conditions for conventional systems
• coping with small lots that can’t accommodate the size of conventional leaching bed
• replacing a failed septic system
• rejuvenating failing conventional leaching beds
• building on hard-to-access properties where finding and/or transporting traditional materials for conventional systems is costly or difficult
• wanting to provide additional protection to groundwater by additional nitrate reduction which some of the treatment units could provide
Septic tanks do not use oxygen as part of the septic treatment. This is known as anaerobic treatment.
Advanced septic treatment units use oxygen to enhance septic treatment. This is known as aerobic treatment. Aerobic septic treatment units treat septic sewage by adding air. Aerobic septic treatment units inject and circulate air so that oxygen-dependent bacteria can thrive. The bacteria break down organic matter, reduce pathogens and transform nutrients (e.g., ammonia to nitrate). Aerobic septic treatment units often have a pre-treatment tank where the scum and solids are separated and stored before the effluent is passed to an aeration chamber. At the aeration chamber, air is added to the effluent, which allows the bacteria to feed on the contaminants thereby producing cleaner effluent. Generally, Aerobic septic treatment units are classified based on the status of bacteria in the wastewater within the treatment unit. Bacteria are either suspended in the liquid or attached to some media. Aerobic septic treatment units require air compressors and in most cases pumps, and use an area bed or shallow buried trench for final distribution and treatment.
In suspended growth septic treatment units, wastewater flows from the pre-treatment tank into the aeration chamber where an air compressor and air diffuser supply oxygen and mix the liquid waste. The air keeps the bacteria “suspended” or floating in the liquid waste. It does not attach to any surface. The oxygen supports the growth of the bacteria and other micro-organisms that break down the wastewater and solids. The effluent then flows into a shallow buried septic trench or area bed. Suspended Growth Treatment Units presently used in Ontario include Whitewater, Aquarobic, Aqua Safe and Aqua Air, Biocycle, Clearstream, Norweco Singulair, and WSB.
In attached growth treatment units, wastewater from the pre-treatment tank flows into an aeration tank that contains pieces of plastic or other synthetic material. Attached growth units rely on oxygen-dependent bacteria to break down wastewater and solids similar to suspended growth units. The difference is that attached growth units let the bacteria attach, grow and thrive on the synthetic material (e.g., plastic shavings, balls, etc.). An air diffuser provides continuous aeration around the synthetic material to enhance bacterial activity and waste treatment. Some attached growth treatment units require an air compressor. The effluent then flows to a shallow buried trench or area bed. Attached growth treatment units presently used in Ontario include Bionest, Bio-Microbics — FAST, Nayadic, and Rotordisk.
The BIONEST system is an advanced generation of onsite wastewater treatment systems. It is a biological process consisting of an extended aeration fixed film reactor. Biomass (good bacteria) develops and firmly attaches to both sides of the BIONEST ribbon shaped polymer media. The high population of bacteria and the support offered by the media for their growth provide the reactor with an outstanding performance level and resistance to hydraulic shock (peak flow). Unlike activated sludge systems which require daily sludge ‘wasting”, the extended retention time in the BIONEST system minimizes the biological sludge production. The BIONEST system is designed to ensure sufficient opportunity time for the biomass to remove pollutants. The major portion of the reactor is aerated through linear air pumps and fine bubble diffusers, which provide turbulent conditions to ensure enhanced treatment. Multiple pumps are used to supply air to the reactor allowing for redundancy, thus ensuring continuous treatment even during maintenance or failure of one or more air pumps.In the remaining portion of the BIONEST reactor, a high level of dissolved oxygen further assists in the oxidation process, in a calmer environment. This calm zone ensures that no solids escape the reactor and that the final effluent is extremely clear. The BIONEST system incorporates a recirculation loop that makes the system a multi-pass process bringing performance to a very high level.
Filtration units utilize trickling filter technology. Wastewater flows to a pre-treatment tank. Wastewater then flows from the pre-treatment tank into the filtration unit that is filled with materials such as peat moss, sand or a synthetic medium. As the wastewater trickles or percolates down through the filtration unit, a bacterial slime grows and thrives. Typically, trapped air fills the voids in the medium and encourages aerobic conditions where bacteria break down the waste as it slowly moves through the filter medium. The effluent then flows to a shallow buried trench or an area bed for final distribution and treatment in the soil. Filter beds can be made verifiable by installing underdrains, which would keep the sand free-draining and aerobic. High-quality effluent from filter beds, peat or foam filters can then be placed in a “shallow area bed” for low-risk disposal. The shallow area septic bed technology, used in Ontario since 1994, affords a two-stage filtration septic treatment train. The “roughing filter” of sand, peat or foam removes ~95% of the organics and >99% of E. coli. The second “polishing filter” is the fine sand layer in the shallow area septic bed, that removes the remaining E. coli for a total of 99.9993% removal before entering the natural environment. The soil and the groundwater are both protected, and health risks are minimized. The double safeguard of septic filtration treatment followed by filtration disposal is similar to the preferred “multiple-barrier” approach to drinking water safety. The multi-barrier approach or defence in depth has been an approach which has long been used by the drinking water industry to provide safe and secure supplies of drinking water. The single biomat barrier in soil based septic systems does not provide the safety of the multiple-barrier approach.
Synthetic Media Filter Treatment Units presently used in Ontario include Waterloo Biofilter and Orenco AdvanTex.
The Waterloo Biofilter is an aerobic trickling filter that uses an absorbent synthetic filter material developed by researchers at the University of Waterloo and first installed in Ontario in 1991. Septic tank effluent is applied intermittently to the top of the filter media. The synthetic media is a support for microbiological growth, and these microorganisms are responsible for the aerobic breakdown of the wastewater. The core of the Waterloo Biofilter system is a synthetic, absorbent filter medium that is configured as a free-draining, attached growth, biological trickling filter to treat sewage and process wastewaters. This patented, engineered Waterloo Biofilter medium is consistent in its physical properties and has been optimized to:
The absorbent Waterloo Biofilter filter medium creates an ideal environment for microbial attachment. Beneficial bacteria colonize the interior surfaces of the absorbent Waterloo Biofilter filter medium where they are protected from predators, desiccation, and freezing. These microbes degrade and oxidize organic pollutants, coliform bacteria, ammonium, and other contaminants as the wastewater is retained in the absorbent Waterloo Biofilter filter medium by capillarity. Air passively circulates throughout the absorbent Waterloo Biofilter filter medium providing an aerobic treatment environment without the need for forced aeration. This attached growth process (also referred to as a fixed film process, intermittent filter, packed bed media filter, or percolating filter) outperforms activated sludge or suspended growth (suspended sludge) processes with lower energy requirements, fewer moving parts, simpler operation, less maintenance, and a better ability to handle shock loads of chemical addition or hydraulic overloads. Waterloo Biofilter is proven in frigid -50°C temperatures, treating cold sewage with influent temperatures as low as 3°C. Compared to other media-based trickling filters, the Waterloo Biofilter does not slough off microbes in the form of aerobic sludge, maintains high treatment levels even in very cold climates, has longer retention times, and can accept much higher organic and hydraulic loads without plugging. Waterloo Biofilters consistently provide tertiary, sand filter quality effluent (< 10 mg/L cBOD & TSS) that is clear and odourless. Highly treated effluent is easily and safely dispersed back into the soil via small, shallow disposal beds or trenches, or can be reused onsite for purposes such as irrigation, truck washing or toilet flushing.
Peat Filter Treatment Units presently used in Ontario include Premier Tech — Ecoflo and Puraflo.
The Ecoflo Biofilter is a trickling filter that uses peat to treat wastewater. The Ecoflo Biofilter consists of an open-bottomed fibreglass shell full of harvested peat. Effluent from a septic tank is delivered by pump or by gravity (depending on relative elevations) to the top of the peat media. Wastewater percolates downward through the peat and then through the infiltration zone, which consists of 200 mm of clear stone & 300 mm of clean sand. After moving through this infiltrative zone, wastewater infiltrates into the native soils. The peat acts both as a place for aerobic bacteria to anchor and treat wastewater as it passes through the filter and as a physical filter. Some limited chemical reactions are also achieved. Aeration of the unit is passive, i.e. there are no blowers or fans to enhance air movement through the peat. The peat must be replaced approximately every 8 years.
Sand Filter Treatment Units presently used in Ontario include Orenco.
Advanced septic treatment systems are very effective in treating septic sewage. With cleaner effluent leaving these advanced septic treatment systems, the size of the soil component (leaching bed) that is needed to complete the septc treatment is smaller than for those using septic tanks only. Advanced septic treatment systems could use one of two small leaching bed systems that are currently approved, or authorized in Ontario: shallow buried trench and area bed. Advanced septic treatment systems can be used with a variety of above ground and in-ground distribution options and offer several unique final distribution options.
Advanced control panels, auto-dialer alarm systems, and remote monitoring service make operation of the septic system simple and efficient.
Shallow Buried Trench
A shallow buried trench is an alternative to a conventional leaching bed. Shallow buried trenches may only be used when the wastewater has been treated to tertiary standards. A shallow buried trench consists of small-diameter PVC laterals running through open-bottom plastic chambers. The laterals are perforated at regular intervals on the top of the pipe. Effluent from the advanced septic treatment system is pumped under pressure through distribution pipes at regular intervals (time-dosed). When the dosing pump is activated, wastewater is forced along the entire length of the lateral and prayed upwards where it hits the chamber and trickles down into the soil. By sizing the pump correctly, the entire footprint of the system is dosed at the same time, ensuring much more efficient distribution and use of the soil absorption system. This pressurized distribution allows for small doses to be evenly distributed along the entire length of the trench and greatly enhances the soil’s ability to receive and treat the effluent. Shallow buried trenches are typically installed in the natural soil close to the surface of the ground, allowing plant roots and bacteria in the soil to take up additional nutrients. Shallow buried trenches can be installed as one row or several rows to meet minimum trench length standards as required by the Ontario Building Code. This method is versatile because the septic trench can follow an irregular pattern (e.g., around trees). The footprint of a shallow buried trench system is much smaller than a conventional system, because the soil is not relied upon to complete very much treatment. In addition, shallow buried trenches may be installed in native soils with a T-time up to 125 min/cm. Shallow buried trench system is appropriate for sites with a high water table, shallow depth to bedrock or tight soils.
Septic Effluent Filter
A septic effluent filter installed at the outlet of the septic tank, dramatically improves the quality of effluent being discharged to the leaching bed, effectively extending its life. The addition of an effluent filter to all systems is strongly recommended. Sewage enters the first chamber of the septic tank through an inlet baffle or tee. Most of the larger particles settle out and the effluent enters the second chamber. The second chamber (much smaller than the first) further enhances the settling process. If flows are heavy at times, solids can pass through both compartments and enter the leaching bed. The effluent filter minimizes this. Effluent filters in accordance with NSF/ANSI 46, “Evaluation of Components and Devices Used in Wastewater Treatment Systems” must now be sized to filter out particles of 1.6 mm [1/16”] and have a minimum area of 550 cm²[85 in.²], in addition to being installed in accordance with the manufacturers requirements.
Effluent filters can be equipped with an alarm to warn that filter needs cleaning. Custom and standard sizes available from many manufacturers.
An area bed is an infiltrative zone similar to that of a septic filter bed. Area beds have very small footprints, are are only allowed in conjunction with alternative septic treatment units providing tertiary level septic treatment. Area bed generally consists of a clean stone layer 250 mm thick underlain by a sand layer 200 to 300 mm thick. The sand layer may vary in depth and size depending on the septic treatment unit being used. Some advanced septic treatment systems have open bottoms that sit right on top of the stone layer while others have distribution network of PVC laterals placed in the stone layer for effluent distribution. Typically effluent from the advanced septic treatment system will flow by gravity to an area bed. However, some systems have a pump as an integral part of the system, and sometimes a pump is added to overcome an elevation difference between the advanced septic treatment system and the area bed. The header and distribution pipes within area beds must be designed and built in such a way that they can be detected by one of the following:
Landscape design should not interfere with the natural functioning of a septic system. A balanced combination of oxygen and organisms will maintain healthy soils necessary for the septic system.
Reduce the use of phosphate-based detergents, soaps and cleaners since phosphorus in detergents, soaps and cleaners doesn’t break down in a septic system. When the phosphorus leaches into nearby bodies of water, it can promote algae growth and can impair water quality and fish habitat.
CAN/BNQ 3680-600 Canadian national standard is based on the methodology of standard NSF 40 for onsite residential wastewater treatment technologies. Similar to standard NSF 40, the CAN/BNQ 3680-600 standard includes a six-month period with limitations and frequent sampling; this period is followed by an additional six months of less frequent sampling to verify the reliability of the treatment system during the four seasons of the Québec climate. Effective January 01, 2017. CAN/BNQ 3680-600 will replace the current criteria for treatment units set out in the Ontario Building Code, and the list of treatment units found in Supplementary Standard SB-5 which are deemed to meet these Code requirements. To be certified under CAN/BNQ 3680-600 and maintain a valid certification, all treatment units shall, in addition of the certification Standard, comply with the Protocol (Policies) BNQ 3680-900 defining all the terms and conditions required to maintain a product’s certification. Once a year, the BNQ will refer to the manufacturer’s database to select randomly a number of 10 sites to be inspected and sampled. The entire process is managed by the BNQ.
During the visit, the independent assessor shall first ensure that the system is functioning correctly and is receiving design flows and loads. 24h composite sampling will be performed by a local accredited laboratory. The manufacturer should be free to choose a representative of his choice to accompany the laboratory technician and the independent assessor. If the system is not functioning correctly and the device or component responsible for the malfunction is not manufactured by the manufacturer, the assessor shall advise in writing only the owner of the malfunction. In all other cases, the assessor shall advise in writing both the owner and the manufacturer
Effluent from 80% of the sites inspected shall comply with the performance standard applicable for the said system. If not, a resampling is performed for the non-complying results. If the 80% of compliance is still not reached, another series of samples from systems that obtained substandard results shall be drawn. If the results of these new analyses confirm initial results obtained and more than 20% of the systems remain substandard, another set of new site inspection/sample equal to twice as many sites as initially will have to be carried out. In this case, it is mandatory that 80% of the sites be compliant.
All costs are entirely at the manufacturer’s expense. Manufacturer shall be kept informed of all results coming out of this process and, when applicable, informed in writing of any non-conformities and corrective measures required to assure the compliance of the systems under investigation. Manufacturer shall introduce appropriate changes and advise certification and regulatory entities in writing. Some cases of nonconformity may require an additional audit visit and testing. In cases where the non-conformity is caused by occupant overloading or abusing the system and that the owner does not agree to a modification to the design, the manufacturer shall notify the regulatory agency that shall be responsible to require compliance. Tests are conducted according to the procedures specified in the Certification Requirements for CAN/BNQ 3680-600 and compliance to the requirements (80%) is part of the conditions for certificate renewal every 2 years. Failure to successfully pass the field performance audit process could lead to certification revocation and consequently automatic de-listing of the product from BNQ official public listing.
Our licensed Professional Engineers design variety of advanced, innovative, predictable, permanent, robust, cost-effective, compact, low energy, low maintenance, visually subtle, and efficient onsite septic systems for off-sewer commercial developments including decentralized commercial and light industrial properties such as strip malls, shopping plazas, truck stops, service stations, motels, restaurants, bars or lounges, coffee shops in Ontario including City of Toronto, Peel Region (Brampton, Mississauga and Caledon), Halton Region (Burlington, Oakville, Milton, and Halton Hills), Brant County, City of Hamilton, Haldimand County, Norfolk County, Niagara Region (Niagara Falls, Port Colborne, St. Catharines, Thorold, Welland, Fort Erie, Grimsby, Lincoln, Niagara-on-the-Lake, Pelham, Wainfleet and West Lincoln), City of Brantford, City of London, Town of St. Marys, City of St. Thomas, City of Stratford, Oxford County (Woodstock, Ingersoll, Tillsonburg, Blandford-Blenheim, East Zorra-Tavistock, Norwich, South-West Oxford and Zorra), Waterloo Region (Kitchener, Cambridge, Waterloo, Woolwich, Wilmot, Wellesley, and North Dumfries), City of Guelph, Wellington County (Centre Wellington, Erin, Guelph / Eramosa, Mapleton, Minto, Puslinch, and Wellington North), Dufferin County (Melancthon, Shelburne. Mono. Mulmur. Amaranth, East Garafraxa, Orangeville and Grandvalley), Bruce County (Saugeen Shores, Kincardine, Brockton, South Bruce Peninsula, Arran–Elderslie. Huron-Kinloss, South Bruce, and Northern Bruce Peninsula), Grey County (Chatsworth, Georgian Bluffs, Grey Highlands, Hanover, Meaford, Owen Sound, Southgate, The Blue Mountains and West Grey), York Region (Aurora, East Gwillimbury, Georgina, King, Markham, Newmarket, Richmond Hill, Vaughan and Whitchurch–Stouffville), Durham Region (Ajax, Brock, Clarington, Oshawa, Pickering, Scugog, Uxbridge and Whitby), Quinte West, Hastings County (Bancroft, Deseronto, Centre Hastings, Hastings Highlands, Carlow/Mayo, Faraday, Limerick, Madoc, Marmora and Lake, Stirling-Rawdon, Tudor and Cashel, Tweed, Tyendinaga and Wollaston), Northumberland County (Brighton, Cobourg, Port Hope, Trent Hills, Alnwick / Haldimand, Cramahe and Township of Hamilton), City of Peterborough, Haliburton County (Algonquin Highlands, Dysart, Bruton, Clyde, Dudley, Eyre, Guilford, Harburn, Harcourt, Havelock, Highlands East and Minden Hills), City of Kawartha Lakes, Simcoe County (Bradford West Gwillimbury, Collingwood, Innisfil, Midland, New Tecumseth, Penetanguishene, Wasaga Beach, Adjala–Tosorontio, Clearview, Essa, Oro-Medonte, Ramara, Severn, Springwater, Tay, and Tiny), City of Barrie, City of Orillia, and District of Muskoka (Bracebridge, Gravenhurst, Huntsville, Georgian Bay, Lake of Bays and Muskoka Lakes),
Our septic system designs meet requirements of Ontario Building Code and Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change, and offer the most affordable, long-lasting site specific septic system design. Inappropriate septic system design, bad construction practices, or poor maintenance can all lead to septic system failure.
A small building with a maximum daily flow rate of about 1,000 liters / day, and if that system is being installed in sandy soil (which has a high absorption rate) then the system could be quite small and be installed at a cost of a few thousand dollars. On the other hand, a building with a maximum daily sewage flow rate of 9,000 Liters / day and hard clay soil (which can only absorb 4 liters, per square meter, per day) then the cost could be over $50,000 because a tertiary system may need to be installed.
Onsite Septic System Experts
BUILDING EXPERTS CANADA
Professional Engineers Ontario
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Our service area includes Brant County, City of Hamilton, Halton Region (Burlington, Oakville, Milton, and Halton Hills), Haldimand County, Norfolk County, Niagara Region (Niagara Falls, Port Colborne, St. Catharines, Thorold, Welland, Fort Erie, Grimsby, Lincoln, Niagara-on-the-Lake, Pelham, Wainfleet and West Lincoln), Wellington County (Centre Wellington, Erin, Guelph / Eramosa, Mapleton, Minto, Puslinch, and Wellington North), Dufferin County (Melancthon, Shelburne. Mono. Mulmur. Amaranth, East Garafraxa, Orangeville and Grandvalley), City of Guelph, York Region (Aurora, East Gwillimbury, Georgina, King, Markham, Newmarket, Richmond Hill, Vaughan and Whitchurch–Stouffville), Peel Region (Brampton, Mississauga and Caledon), City of Peterborough, Haliburton County (Algonquin Highlands, Dysart, Bruton, Clyde, Dudley, Eyre, Guilford, Harburn, Harcourt, Havelock, Highlands East and Minden Hills), City of Kawartha Lakes, Durham Region (Ajax, Brock, Clarington, Oshawa, Pickering, Scugog, Uxbridge and Whitby), Simcoe County (Bradford West Gwillimbury, Collingwood, Innisfil, Midland, New Tecumseth, Penetanguishene, Wasaga Beach, Adjala–Tosorontio, Clearview, Essa, Oro-Medonte, Ramara, Severn, Springwater, Tay, and Tiny), City of Barrie, City of Orillia, District of Muskoka, Grey County (Chatsworth, Georgian Bluffs, Grey Highlands, Hanover, Meaford, Owen Sound, Southgate, The Blue Mountains and West Grey) and Bruce County (Saugeen Shores, Kincardine, Brockton, South Bruce Peninsula, Arran–Elderslie. Huron-Kinloss, South Bruce, and Northern Bruce Peninsula), City of Brantford, City of London, Town of St. Marys, City of St. Thomas, City of Stratford, Oxford County (Woodstock, Ingersoll, Tillsonburg, Blandford-Blenheim, East Zorra-Tavistock, Norwich, South-West Oxford and Zorra), Waterloo Region (Kitchener, Cambridge, Waterloo, Woolwich, Wilmot, Wellesley, and North Dumfries), Quinte West, Hastings County (Bancroft, Deseronto, Centre Hastings, Hastings Highlands, Carlow/Mayo, Faraday, Limerick, Madoc, Marmora and Lake, Stirling-Rawdon, Tudor and Cashel, Tweed, Tyendinaga and Wollaston), Northumberland County (Brighton, Cobourg, Port Hope, Trent Hills, Alnwick/Haldimand, Cramahe and Township of Hamilton).
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